Knowledge of IFT values for chemical mixtures helps guide the design and analysis of various processes, including NAPL remediation with surfactants or alcohol flushing, enhanced oil recovery, and chemical separation technologies, yet available literature values are sparse. A comprehensive comparison of thermodynamic and empirical models for estimating interfacial tension (IFT) of organic chemical mixtures with water is conducted, mainly focusing on chlorinated organic compounds for 14 ternary, three quaternary, and one quinary systems. Emphasis is placed on novel results for systems with three and four organic chemical compounds, and for systems with composite organic compounds like lard oil and mineral oil. Seven models are evaluated: the ideal and nonideal monolayer models (MLID and MLNID), the ideal and nonideal mutual solubility models (MSID and MSNID), an empirical model for ternary systems (EM), a linear mixing model based on mole fractions (LMMM), and a newly developed linear mixing model based on volume fractions of organic mixtures (LMMV) for higher order systems. The two ideal models (MLID and MSID) fit ternary systems of chlorinated organic compounds without surface active compounds relatively well. However, both ideal models did not perform well for the mixtures containing a surface active compound. However, for these systems, both the MLNID and MSNID models matched the IFT data well. It is shown that the MLNID model with a surface coverage value (0.00341 mmol/m2) obtained in this study can practically be used for chlorinated organic compounds. The LMMM results in poorer estimates of the IFT as the difference in IFT values of individual organic compounds in a mixture increases. The EM, with two fitting parameters, provided accurate results for all 14 ternary systems including composite organic compounds. The new LMMV method for quaternary and higher component systems was successfully tested. This study shows that the LMMV may be able to be used for higher component systems and it can be easily incorporated into compositional multiphase flow models using only parameters from ternary systems.
H. Yoon, Werth, C. J., Barkan, C. P. L., Schaeffer, D. J., and Anand, P., “
North American railroads transport a wide variety of chemicals, chemical mixtures and solutions in railroad tank cars. In the event of an accident, these materials may be spilled and impact the environment. Among the chemicals commonly transported are a number of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs). If these are spilled they can contaminate soil and groundwater and result in costly cleanups. Railroads need a means of objectively assessing the relative risk to the environment due to spills of these different materials. Environmental models are often used to determine the extent of contamination, and the associated environmental risks. For LNAPL spills, these models must account for NAPL infiltration and redistribution, NAPL dissolution and volatilization, and remediation systems such as pump and treat. This study presents the development and application of an environmental screening model to assess NAPL infiltration and redistribution in soils and groundwater, and to assess groundwater cleanup time using a pumping system. Model simulations use parameters and conditions representing LNAPL releases from railroad tank cars. To take into account unique features of railroad-tank-car spill sites, the hydrocarbon spill screening model (HSSM), which assumes a circular surface spill area and a circular NAPL lens, was modified to account for a rectangular spill area and corresponding lens shape at the groundwater table, as well as the effects of excavation and NAPL evaporation to the atmosphere. The modified HSSM was first used to simulate NAPL infiltration and redistribution. A NAPL dissolution and groundwater transport module, and a pumping system module were then implemented and used to simulate the effects of chemical properties, excavation, and free NAPL removal on NAPL redistribution and cleanup time. The amount of NAPL that reached the groundwater table was greater in coarse sand with high permeability than in fine sand or silt with lower permeabilities. Excavation can reduce the amount of NAPL that reaches the groundwater more effectively in lower permeability soils. The effect of chemical properties including vapor pressure and the ratio of density to viscosity become more important in fine sand and silt soil due to slow NAPL movement in the vadose zone. As expected, a pumping system was effective for high solubility chemicals, but it was not effective for low solubility chemicals due to rate-limited mass transfer by transverse dispersion and flow bypassing. Free NAPL removal can improve the removal efficiency for moderately low solubility chemicals like benzene, but cleanup times even after free NAPL removal can be prolonged for very low solubility chemicals like cyclohexane and styrene.
The objectives of this work were to determine if a pore-scale model could accurately capture the physical and chemical processes that control transverse mixing and reaction in microfluidic pore structures (i.e., micromodels), and to directly evaluate the effects of porous media geometry on a transverse mixing-limited chemical reaction. We directly compare pore-scale numerical simulations using a lattice-Boltzmann finite volume model (LB-FVM) with micromodel experiments using identical pore structures and flow rates, and we examine the effects of grain size, grain orientation, and intraparticle porosity upon the extent of a fast bimolecular reaction. For both the micromodel experiments and LB-FVM simulations, two reactive substrates are introduced into a network of pores via two separate and parallel fluid streams. The substrates mix within the porous media transverse to flow and undergo instantaneous reaction. Results indicate that (i) the LB-FVM simulations accurately captured the physical and chemical process in the micromodel experiments, (ii) grain size alone is not sufficient to quantify mixing at the pore scale, (iii) interfacial contact area between reactive species plumes is a controlling factor for mixing and extent of chemical reaction, (iv) at steady state, mixing and chemical reaction can occur within aggregates due to interconnected intra-aggregate porosity, (v) grain orientation significantly affects mixing and extent of reaction, and (vi) flow focusing enhances transverse mixing by bringing stream lines which were initially distal into close proximity thereby enhancing transverse concentration gradients. This study suggests that subcontinuum effects can play an important role in the overall extent of mixing and reaction in groundwater, and hence may need to be considered when evaluating reactive transport.