In this paper, we present a novel approach to retrieve attenuation corrected fluorescence (ACF) in the image field. This approach can be applied to improve tumor identification for both diagnosis and treatment purpose. Furthermore, this approach will facilitate the development of fluorescence image-guided surgery.
We present a Monte Carlo lookup table (MCLUT)-based inverse model for extracting optical properties from tissue-simulating phantoms. This model is valid for close source-detector separation and highly absorbing tissues. The MCLUT is based entirely on Monte Carlo simulation, which was implemented using a graphics processing unit. We used tissue-simulating phantoms to determine the accuracy of the MCLUT inverse model. Our results show strong agreement between extracted and expected optical properties, with errors rate of 1.74% for extracted reduced scattering values, 0.74% for extracted absorption values, and 2.42% for extracted hemoglobin concentration values.
A two-layer Monte Carlo lookup table-based inverse model is validated with two-layered phantoms across physiologically relevant optical property ranges. Reflectance data for source-detector separations of 370 μm and 740 μm were collected from these two-layered phantoms and top layer thickness, reduced scattering coefficient and the top and bottom layer absorption coefficients were extracted using the inverse model and compared to the known values. The results of the phantom verification show that this method is able to accurately extract top layer thickness and scattering when the top layer thickness ranges from 0 to 550 μm. In this range, top layer thicknesses were measured with an average error of 10% and the reduced scattering coefficient was measured with an average error of 15%. The accuracy of top and bottom layer absorption coefficient measurements was found to be highly dependent on top layer thickness, which agrees with physical expectation; however, within appropriate thickness ranges, the error for absorption properties varies from 12-25%.
A new approach to retrieve the attenuation-corrected fluorescence using spatial frequency-domain imaging is demonstrated. Both in vitro and ex vivo experiments showed the technique can compensate for the fluorescence attenuation from tissue absorption and scattering. This approach has potential in molecular image-guided surgery.