A unique routine, capable of identifying both linear and higher-order coherence in multiple-input/output systems, is presented. The technique combines two well established methods: Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Higher-Order Spectra Analysis. The latter of these is based on known methods for characterizing nonlinear systems by way of Volterra series. In that, both linear and higher-order kernels are formed to quantify the spectral (nonlinear) transfer of energy between the system’s input and output. This reduces essentially to spectral Linear Stochastic Estimation when only first-order terms are considered, and is therefore presented in the context of stochastic estimation as spectral Higher-Order Stochastic Estimation (HOSE). The trade-off to seeking higher-order transfer kernels is that the increased complexity restricts the analysis to single-input/output systems. Low-dimensional (POD-based) analysis techniques are inserted to alleviate this void as POD coefficients represent the dynamics of the spatial structures (modes) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. The mathematical framework behind this POD-based HOSE method is first described. The method is then tested in the context of jet aeroacoustics by modeling acoustically efficient large-scale instabilities as combinations of wave packets. The growth, saturation, and decay of these spatially convecting wave packets are shown to couple both linearly and nonlinearly in the near-field to produce waveforms that propagate acoustically to the far-field for different frequency combinations.
The acoustic signatures produced by a full-scale, Bell 430 helicopter during steady-level-flight and transient roll-right maneuvers are analyzed by way of time–frequency analysis. The roll-right maneuvers comprise both a medium and a fast roll rate. Data are acquired using a single ground based microphone that are analyzed by way of the Morlet wavelet transform to extract the spectral properties and sound pressure levels as functions of time. The findings show that during maneuvering operations of the helicopter, both the overall sound pressure level and the blade–vortex interaction sound pressure level are greatest when the roll rate of the vehicle is at its maximum. The reduced inflow in the region of the rotor disk where blade–vortex interaction noise originates is determined to be the cause of the increase in noise. A local decrease in inflow reduces the miss distance of the tip vortex and thereby increases the BVI noise signature. Blade loading and advance ratios are also investigated as possible mechanisms for increased sound production, but are shown to be fairly constant throughout the maneuvers.
The acoustic waveforms produced by an unheated supersonic and shock free jet operating at a gas dynamic Mach number of 3 and an acoustic Mach number of 1.79 are examined over a large spatial domain in the (x,r)-plane. Under these operating conditions, acoustic waveforms within the Mach cone comprise sawtooth-like structures which cause a crackling sound to occur. The crackling structures produced by our laboratory-scale nozzle are studied in a range-restricted environment, and so, they are not the consequence of cumulative nonlinear waveform distortions, but are rather generated solely by local mechanisms in, or in close vicinity to, the jet plume. Our current work focuses on characterizing the temporal and spectral properties of these shock-structures. A detection algorithm is introduced which isolates the shock-structures in the temporal waveforms based on a pressure rise time and shock strength that satisfy user defined thresholds. The average shapes of the shock-structures are shown to vary along polar angles centered on the post-potential core region of the jet. Spectral characteristics of the crackling structures are then determined using conventional wavelet-based time–frequency analyses. Differences between the global wavelet spectrum and the local wavelet spectrum computed from instances when shocks are detected in the waveform show how shock-structures are more pronounced at shallow angles to the jet axis. The findings from this energy-based metric differ from those obtained using the skewness of the pressure and the pressure derivative.
Dynamical characteristics of tip vortices shed from a 1 m diameter, four-bladed rotor in hover are investigated using various aperiodicity correction techniques. Data are acquired by way of stereo-particle image velocimetry and comprises measurements up to 260 vortex age with 10 offsets. The nominal operating condition of the rotor corresponds to Rec = 248,000 and M = 0.23 at the blade tip. With the collective pitch set to 7.2 and a rotor solidity of 0.147, blade loading (CT/r) is estimated from blade element momentum theory to be 0.042. The findings reveal a noticeable, anisotropic, aperiodic vortex wandering pattern over all vortex ages measured. These findings are in agreement with recent observations of a full-scale, four-bladed rotor in hover operating under realistic blade loading. The principal axis of wander is found to align itself perpendicular to the slipstream boundary. Likewise, tip vortices trailing from different blades show a wandering motion that is in phase instantaneously with respect to one another, in every direction and at every wake age in the measurement envelope.
Surveys of the fluctuating wall pressure were conducted on a sub-scale parabolic-contour rocket nozzle to infer an understanding of the flow and shock structure pattern during fixed and transient operations of the nozzle. During start-up, the nozzle is highly overexpanded, which results in unsteady wall pressure signatures driven by shock foot unsteadiness. Wall pressure data are first analyzed using spatial Fourier transformations to extract the azimuthal modes during various operating states. A time-frequency analysis of the temporal azimuthal mode coefficients is then used to characterize the time-dependent spectral behavior of the wall pressure signatures during start-up. For both fixed and transient operations of the nozzle, the axisymmetric breathing mode (m = 0) comprises most of the resolved energy. As for the transient operations alone, slight deviations in ramp rate are shown to considerably influence the amount of unsteadiness that the nozzle wall is exposed to, even though the general spectral and temporal features remain similar. In particular, increased ramp rates result in increased wall pressure intensity. Secondly, three major low-frequency events (f [ 400 Hz) were observed during start-up and are attributed to: (1) FSS to RSS transition, (2) the passing of the reattachment line from the first separation bubble, and (3) the ‘end-effects regime’. The last of these refers to a condition where a trapped separation bubble opens intermittently to ambient at the nozzle lip.
A study of the fluctuating wall pressure beneath a 2-d turbulent boundary layer was conducted in a water tunnel with Reynolds numbers, based on momentum thickness, ranging between 2,100 and 4,300. The boundary layer was perturbed with steady mild suction to assess the effect of upstream suction on the fluctuating wall pressure measured downstream of the suction slit. Wall pressure signatures were captured using a custom-fabricated piezoceramic array with d? values ranging between 64 and 107. Likewise, the velocity field was measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter with l? values ranging between 4.0 and 6.7 for the lowest and highest Reh investigated. Estimates of the wall pressure spectra revealed a noticeable hydrodynamic peak that scaled reasonably well with outer variables and with an average convective speed of 75% of the free stream velocity (based on unconditionally sampled pressure time series). Two boundary layer suction control cases were studied corresponding to suction rates of less then 30% of the boundary layer momentum. The findings reveal how only modest amounts of suction are needed to reduce upwards 50–60% of the hydrodynamic ridge.
To capture the full spectrum of the fluctuating wall pressure beneath a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) provides a unique challenge in transducer design. This paper discusses the design, construction and testing of an array of surface-mounted piezoelectric ceramic elements with the goal of having both the spatial resolution and the frequency bandwidth to accurately sense the low-frequency, low-wavenumber events beneath a TBL at moderately low Reynolds numbers. The array is constructed from twenty 1.27 cm tall prismatic rods with 0.18 cm × 0.16 cm cross-section made of Navy type II piezoelectric ceramic material. Calibration was performed by comparing the response of a Navy H56 precision-calibrated hydrophone to the outputs of each element on the array for a given input from a Navy J9 projector. The elements show an average sensitivity of −184 dB (re: 1 V μPa−1) and are assembled with a centre-to-centre spacing of 0.2 cm. Measurements of the fluctuating wall pressure below a 2d TBL with Reynolds numbers (based on momentum thickness) ranging from 2100 to 4300 show that the dimensions of the elements are between 64 and 107 viscous length units, respectively. A spatial and temporal footprint of the fluctuating wall pressure reveals convective speeds averaging 75% of the free stream velocity.