Coherent thermal phonons (CTPs) play an important role in thermal transport in superlattice (SL) structures. To have a profound understanding of CTP transport in SL, direct measurement of CTP properties is necessary. In this study, coherent phonon spectroscopy has been utilized to generate and detect CTP in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 SL. Phonon lifetimes have been extracted from experimental data, with which mode-wise thermal conductivities have been calculated. Comparing with bulk Bi2Te3, the estimated mode-wise thermal conductivity of longitudinal acoustic phonons shifts to higher frequencies, due to constructive coherent phonon interference. Our results suggest that it is possible to use SL structure to manipulate coherent phonon propagation and to tailor thermal conductivity.
BACKGROUND: Dietary canthaxanthin (CX), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D 3 ) and vitamins have been widely reported to be involved in productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. However, limited information is available for duck breeders. In this study, a total of 1,560 Cherry Valley SM3 duck breeder females and 312 males were used to assess if the addition of CX and 25-OH-D3 could increase the performance of duck breeders under two different dietary vitamin regimens. Four diets were used under a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with 2 kinds of vitamin premixes (REGULAR and HIGH; HIGH premix had higher levels of all vitamins except K3 than REGULAR premix), and with or without the supplementation of the mixture of CX (6 mg/kg) and 25-OH-D3 (0.069 mg/kg). The ducks were fed ad libitum with pelleted diets based on corn-soybean meal from 38 to 77 wk of age. RESULTS: HIGH vitamin premix decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level (P < 0.001) of egg yolk, increased hatchability of fertile eggs (P = 0.029), increased hatchability of total eggs (P = 0.029), and decreased serum protein carbonyl level (P = 0.037) of breeder males. The mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 increased serum calcium of breeder females (P = 0.010), decreased the cracked egg rate (P = 0.001), increased the pigmentation of egg yolk (P < 0.001) and male bill (P < 0.001), and decreased MDA level of egg yolk (P < 0.001) and male serum (P = 0.034). Interactive effects were observed in cracked egg rate (P = 0.038), shell thickness (P = 0.011) and serum phosphorus (P = 0.026) of breeder females. HIGH vitamin premix together with the mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 decreased cracked egg rate and increased shell thickness of duck breeders. Serum phosphorus was decreased in duck breeder females fed REGULAR vitamin premix without the addition of the CX and 25-OH-D3 mixture. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary HIGH vitamin premix increased antioxidant status of eggs and breeder males, and increased hatchability. The mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 enhanced egg shell quality, and promoted pigmentation and antioxidant status of eggs and breeder males.
The effect of stagger startup on the vibro-acoustic loads that form during the end-effects regime of clustered rockets is studied using both full-scale (hot-gas) and laboratory scale (cold gas) data with vehicle geometry. Both configurations comprise three nozzles with thrust optimized parabolic contours that undergo free shock separated flow and restricted shock separated flow as well as an end-effects regime prior to flowing full. Acoustic pressure waveforms recorded at the base of the nozzle cluster are analyzed using various statistical metrics as well as time-frequency analysis. The findings reveal a significant reduction in end-effects regime loads when engine ignition is staggered. However, regardless of stagger, both the skewness and kurtosis of the acoustic pressure time derivative elevate to the same levels during the end-effects regime thereby demonstrating the intermittence and impulsiveness of the acoustic waveforms that form during engine startup.
The effect of stagger startup on the vibroacoustic loads that form during the end-effects regime of clustered rockets is studied using both full-scale (hot-gas) and laboratory-scale (cold-gas) data with vehicle geometry. Both configurations comprise three nozzles with thrust-optimized parabolic contours that undergo free-shock separated flow and restricted-shock separated flow as well as an end-effects regime before flowing full. Acoustic pressure waveforms recorded at the base of the nozzle cluster are analyzed using various statistical metrics as well as time-frequency analysis. The findings reveal a significant reduction in end-effects regime loads when engine startups are staggered. However, regardless of stagger, both the skewness and kurtosis of the acoustic pressure time derivative elevate to the same levels, thereby demonstrating the intermittence and impulsiveness of the acoustic waveforms during the end effects regime.
A method for the synthesis of electroactive polymers is demonstrated, starting with the synthesis of extended conjugation monomers using a three-step process that finishes with Negishi coupling. Negishi coupling is a cross-coupling process in which a chemical precursor is first lithiated, followed by transmetallation with ZnCl2. The resultant organozinc compound can be coupled to a dibrominated aromatic precursor to give the conjugated monomer. Polymer films can be prepared via electropolymerization of the monomer and characterized using cyclic voltammetry and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. Nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared via emulsion polymerization of the monomer using a two-surfactant system to yield an aqueous dispersion of the polymer NPs. The NPs are characterized using dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and UV-Vis-NIR-spectroscopy. Cytocompatibility of NPs is investigated using the cell viability assay. Finally, the NP suspensions are irradiated with a NIR laser to determine their effectiveness as potential materials for photothermal therapy (PTT).
Ion exchange (IX) is the most common approach to treating nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources, but the cost of salt to make regeneration brine, as well as the cost and environmental burden of waste brine disposal, are major disadvantages. A hybrid ion exchange-catalyst treatment system, in which waste brine is catalytically treated for reuse, shows promise for reducing costs and environmental burdens of the conventional IX system. An IX model with separate treatment and regeneration cycles was developed, and ion selectivity coefficients for each cycle were separately calibrated by fitting experimental data. Of note, selectivity coefficients for the regeneration cycle required fitting the second treatment cycle after incomplete resin regeneration. The calibrated and validated model was used to simulate many cycles of treatment and regeneration using the hybrid system. Simulated waste brines and a real brine obtained from a California utility were also evaluated for catalytic nitrate treatment in a packed-bed, flow-through column with 0.5 wt%Pd–0.05 wt%In/activated carbon support (PdIn/AC). Consistent nitrate removal and no apparent catalyst deactivation were observed over 23 d (synthetic brine) and 45 d (real waste brine) of continuous-flow treatment. Ion exchange and catalyst results were used to evaluate treatment of 1 billion gallons of nitrate-contaminated source water at a 0.5 MGD water treatment plant. Switching from a conventional IX system with a two bed volume regeneration to a hybrid system with the same regeneration length and sequencing batch catalytic reactor treatment would save 76% in salt cost. The results suggest the hybrid system has the potential to address the disadvantages of a conventional IX treatment systems.
The use of foam in gas enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes has the potential to improve oil recovery by reducing gas mobility. Nanoparticles are a promising alternative to surfactants in creating foam in the harsh environments found in many oil fields. We conducted several CO2-in-brine foam generation experiments in Boise sandstones with surface-treated silica nanoparticle in high-salinity conditions. All the experiments were conducted at the fixed CO2 volume fraction (g = 0.75) and fixed flow rate which changed in steps. We started at low flow rates, increased to a medium flow rates followed by decreasing and then increasing into high flow rates. The steady-state foam apparent viscosity was measured as a function of injection velocity.
The foam flowing through the cores showed higher foam generation and consequently higher apparent viscosity as the flow rate increased from low to medium and high velocities. At very high velocities, once foam bubbles were finely textured, the foam apparent viscosity was governed by foam shear-thinning rheology rather than foam creation. A noticeable "hysteresis" occurred when the flow velocity was initially increased and then decreased, implying multiple (coarse and strong) foam states at the same superficial velocity.
A normalized generation function was combined with CMG-STARS foam model to cover the full spectrum of foam flow behavior observed during the experiments. The new foam model successfully captures foam generation and hysteresis trends observed in presented experiments in this study and other foam generation experiments at different operational conditions (e.g. fixed pressure drop at fixed foam quality, and fixed pressure drop at fixed water velocity) from the literature.
The results indicate once foam is generated in porous media, it is possible to maintain strong foam at low injection rates. This makes foam more feasible in field applications where foam generation is limited by high injection rates (or high pressure gradient) that may only exist near the injection well. Therefore, understanding of foam generation, and foam hysteresis in porous media and accurate modeling of the process are necessary steps for efficient foam design in field.
The plume produced by a cluster of two large area-ratio thrust-optimized paraboliccontour nozzles is visualized over a range of nozzle pressure ratios by way of retrore-flective shadowgraphy. Both nozzles exhibit free-shock separated flow, restricted-shockseparated flow and an end-effects regime prior to flowing full. Transient (startup) op-erations of the nozzles are studied with the primary focus being the pulsations thatform during the end-effects regime. This occurs at a pressure ratio of 37 for thesenozzles and is associated with elevated sound levels in the immediate vicinity of thenozzles and vehicle. The shadowgraphy images reveal the formation of turbulent largescale structures, on the order of the nozzle diameter, during the end-effects regime.These large scale structures are driven by the intermittent opening of the last trappedannular separation bubble to the ambient and grow rapidly within the first two nozzlediameters.