The spatial evolution of acoustic waveforms produced by a Mach 3 jet are investigated using both 1/4 inch and 1/8 inch pressure field microphones located along rays emanating from the post potential core where the peak sound emission is found to occur. The measurements are acquired in a fully anechoic chamber where ground, or other large surface reflections are minimal. The calculation of the OASPL along an arc located at 95 jet diameters using 120 planar grid measurements are shown to collapse remarkably well when the arc array is centered on the post potential core region. Various statistical metrics, including the quadrature spectral density, number of zero crossings, the skewness of the pressure time derivative and the integral of the negative part of the quadrature spectral density, are exercised along the peak emission path. These metrics are shown to undergo rapid changes within 2 meters from the source regions of this laboratory scale jet. The sensitivity of these findings to both transducer size and humidity effects are discussed. A visual extrapolation of these nonlinear metrics toward the jet shear layer suggests that these waveforms are initially skewed at the source. An experimentally validated wave packet model is used to confirm the location where the pressure decay law transition from cylindrical to spherical. It is then used to estimate the source intensity which is required to predict the effective Gol’dberg number.
Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography has proven to be a viable alternative to optical lithography for fabrication of sub 30 nm nanostructures for large volume semiconductor manufacturing. Machine throughput, overlay and process defectivity that meet and exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) are essential for commercial viability of any new lithography technology. Jet and Flash. Imprint Lithography uses an inkjet head to dispense a grid of liquid drops on the wafer surface to match the volume requirements of the pattern being imprinted. Wafer shape modulation has been shown to increase imprinting speed significantly by reducing air bubble trapping in the drop interstitial sites. A wafer shape modulation chuck that can address arbitrary field locations and sizes on a wafer with a novel actuation scheme that minimizes the number of actuators while increasing imprinting speed and reducing process defects significantly is presented. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Delftia acidovorans MC1071 can productively degrade R-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionate (R-2,4-DP) but not 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) herbicides. This work demonstrates adaptation of MC1071 to degrade 2,4-D in a model two-dimensional porous medium (referred to here as a micromodel). Adaptation for 2,4-D degradation in the 2 cm-long micromodel occurred within 35 days of exposure to 2,4-D, as documented by substrate removal. The amount of 2,4-D degradation in the adapted cultures in two replicate micromodels (~10 and 20 % over 142 days) was higher than a theoretical maximum (4 %) predicted using published numerical simulation methods, assuming instantaneous biodegradation and a transverse dispersion coefficient obtained for the same pore structure without biomass present. This suggests that the presence of biomass enhances substrate mixing. Additional evidence for adaptation was provided by operation without R-2,4-DP, where degradation of 2,4-D slowly decreased over 20 days, but was restored almost immediately when R-2,4-DP was again provided. Compared to suspended growth systems, the micromodel system retained the ability to degrade 2,4-D longer in the absence of R-2,4-DP, suggesting slower responses and greater resilience to fluctuations in substrates might be expected in the soil environment than in a chemostat.
The guest editors introduce a Biomedical Optics Express feature issue that includes contributions from participants at the 2013 conference on Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XIII.
Perovskite oxides have attracted significant attention as energy conversion materials for metal–air battery and solid-oxide fuel-cell electrodes owing to their unique physical and electronic properties. Amongst these unique properties is the structural stability of the cation array in perovskites that can accommodate mobile oxygen ions under electrical polarization. Despite oxygen ion mobility and vacancies having been shown to play an important role in catalysis, their role in charge storage has yet to be explored. Herein we investigate the mechanism of oxygen-vacancy-mediated redox pseudocapacitance for a nanostructured lanthanum-based perovskite, LaMnO3. This is the first example of anion-based intercalation pseudocapacitance as well as the first time oxygen intercalation has been exploited for fast energy storage. Whereas previous pseudocapacitor and rechargeable battery charge storage studies have focused on cation intercalation, the anion-based mechanism presented here offers a new paradigm for electrochemical energy storage
T. M. Truskett, Johnston, K. P., Maynard, J. A., Borwankar, A. U., Murthy, A. K., Stover, R. J., Wilson, B. K., Dinin, A. K., Laber, J. R., and Gourisankar, S., “Assembling nanoclusters in water for therapy or imaging,” ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 247. AMER CHEMICAL SOC 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA, 2014.
During deep-sea oil leaks, dispersants may be used to break up the oil into droplets smaller than about 70 μm, which may then be bioremediated by bacteria before they reach the ocean surface. To investigate the mechanism of droplet formation as a function of dispersant type, concentration, and jet velocity, a flowing oleophilic stream containing amphiphiles was mixed with flowing dodecane and then atomized through a 0.25 mm circular nozzle. The minimum droplet diameters were 2.2, 4.5, and 24 μm for only 5 w:v % amphiphile in the oil phase for Corexit 9500A, Tergitol 15-S-7 (C12H25CH(OCH2CH2)7OH), and a silica nanoparticle/Span 20 mixture, respectively. For Tergitol 15-S-7, the droplet size exhibited the expected scaling with Weber number (We) at low viscosity numbers (Vi < 50), where inertial forces overcome interfacial forces, and Reynolds number (Re) at high Vi numbers (Vi > 50), where inertial forces overcome viscous forces. However, in the case of the silica nanoparticle/Span 20 mixture, the magnitude of the exponent of We scaling was found to be smaller than −3/5. A better understanding of how low concentrations of dispersants (with relatively high oil–water interfacial tensions) may be used to provide a sufficient We with high inertial forces (high Re) in jets to form small oil droplets, which is of interest for advancing environmental protection in the undesired event of a deep-sea oil leak
Synergistic interactions between appropriately designed surface-modified nanoparticles and surfactants are shown to stabilize foams of CO2 bubbles/droplets dispersed in water at elevated temperature and pressure typical of subsurface formations for enhanced oil recovery or geologic storage of CO2. The foams are sufficiently viscous to mitigate or eliminate the instability associated with CO2 displacement of fluids resident in the oil reservoir or brine aquifer. This technology therefore has the potential to increase the efficiency of oil recovery and the efficiency of pore space utilization for storage.
Discrepancies between linear predictions and direct measurements of the far-field sound produced by high speed jet flows are typically ascribed to nonlinear distortion. Here we employ an effective Gol’dberg number to investigate the likelihood of nonlinear distortion in the noise fields of supersonic jets. This simplified approach relies on an isolated view of a ray tube along the Mach wave angle. It is known that the acoustic pressure obeys by cylindrical spreading in close vicinity to the jet before advancing to a spherical decay in the far-field. Therefore, a ‘piecewise-spreading regime’ model is employed in order to compute effective Gol’dberg numbers for these jet flows. Our first-principal approach suggests that cumulative nonlinear distortion can only be present within 20 jet exit diameters along the Mach wave angle when laboratory-scale jets are being considered. Effective Gol’dberg numbers for full-scale jet noise scenarios reveal that a high-degree of cumulative distortion can likewise be present in the spherical decay regime. Hence, full-scale jet noise fields are more affected by cumulative distortion.