Chronic imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an important tool for investigating vascular remodeling after injury such as stroke. Although techniques such as Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) have emerged as valuable tools for imaging CBF in acute experiments, their utility for chronic measurements or cross-animal comparisons has been limited. Recently, an extension to LSCI called Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging (MESI) was introduced that increases the quantitative accuracy of CBF images. In this paper, we show that estimates of chronic blood flow are better with MESI than with traditional LSCI. We evaluate the accuracy of the MESI flow estimates using red blood cell (RBC) photographic tracking as an absolute flow calibration in mice over several days. The flow measures computed using the MESI and LSCI techniques were found to be on average 10% and 24% deviant (n=9 mice), respectively, compared with RBC velocity changes. We also map CBF dynamics after photo-thrombosis of selected cortical microvasculature. Correlations of flow dynamics with RBC tracking were closer with MESI (r=0.88) than with LSCI (r=0.65) up to 2 weeks from baseline. With the increased quantitative accuracy, MESI can provide a platform for studying the efficacy of stroke therapies aimed at flow restoration.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 10 April 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.57.
Environmental impacts of conventional and emerging perchlorate drinking water treatment technologies were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). Comparison of two ion exchange (IX) technologies (i.e., nonselective IX with periodic regeneration using brines and perchlorate-selective IX without regeneration) at an existing plant shows that brine is the dominant contributor for nonselective IX, which shows higher impact than perchlorate-selective IX. Resource consumption during the operational phase comprises >80% of the total impacts. Having identified consumables as the driving force behind environmental impacts, the relative environmental sustainability of IX, biological treatment, and catalytic reduction technologies are compared more generally using consumable inputs. The analysis indicates that the environmental impacts of heterotrophic biological treatment are 2–5 times more sensitive to influent conditions (i.e., nitrate/oxygen concentration) and are 3–14 times higher compared to IX. However, autotrophic biological treatment is most environmentally beneficial among all. Catalytic treatment using carbon-supported Re–Pd has a higher (ca. 4600 times) impact than others, but is within 0.9–30 times the impact of IX with a newly developed ligand-complexed Re–Pd catalyst formulation. This suggests catalytic reduction can be competitive with increased activity. Our assessment shows that while IX is an environmentally competitive, emerging technologies also show great promise from an environmental sustainability perspective.
A model was recently 26 introduced to describe the complex electrical conductivity and high frequency dielectric constant of isotropic clayey porous materials. That approach is generalized here to the case of anisotropic and tight hydrocarbon-bearing shales and mudrocks by introducing tensorial versions of both formation factor and tortuosity. It is shown that in-phase and quadrature conductivity tensors have common eigenvectors, but that the eigenvectors of the dielectric tensor may be different due to influence of the solid phase at high requencies. In-phase and quadrature contributions to complex electrical conductivity depend on saturation, salinity, porosity, temperature, and cation exchange capacity (alternatively, specific surface area) of the porous material. Kerogen is likely to have a negligible contribution to the cation exchange capacity of the material because all exchangeable sites in the functional groups of organic matter may have been polymerized during diagenesis. An anisotropic experiment is performed to validate some of the properties described by the proposed model, especially to verify that the electrical anisotropy factor is the same for both in-phase and quadrature conductivities. We use two samples from the Bakken formation. Experimental data confirm the validity of the model. It is also found that the range of values for cation exchange capacity determined when implementing the new model with experimental data agree with the known range of cation exchange capacity for the Bakken shale. Measurements indicate that the bulk-space tortuosity in the direction normal to bedding plane can be higher than 100.
The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities of individual β-silicon carbide nanowires produced by combustion in a calorimetric bomb were studied using a suspended micro-resistance thermometry device that allows four-point probe measurements to be conducted on each nanowire. Additionally, crystal structure and growth direction for each measured nanowire was directly obtained by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The Fermi level, the carrier concentration, and mobility of each nanostructure were determined using a combination of Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements, energy band structure and transport theory calculations. The temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivities of the nanowires was explained in terms of contributions from boundary, impurity, and defect scattering.
Foams used for mobility control in CO2 flooding, and for more secure sequestration of anthropogenic CO2, can be stabilized with nanoparticles, instead of surfactants, bringing some important advantages. The solid nature of the nanoparticles in stabilized foams allows them to withstand the high-temperature reservoir conditions for extended periods of time. They also have more robust stability because of the large adsorption energy required to bring the nanoparticles to the bubble interface.
Silica nanoparticle-stabilized CO2-in-brine foams were generated by the co-injection of CO2 and aqueous nanoparticle dispersion through beadpacks, and through unfractured and fractured sandstone cores. Foam flow in rock matrix and fracture, both through Boise and Berea sandstones, was investigated. The apparent viscosity measured from foam flow in various porous media was also compared with that measured in a capillary tube, installed downstream of beadpacks and cores.
The domain of foam stability and the apparent foam viscosity in beadpacks was first investigated with focus on how the surface wettability of nanoparticles affects the foam generation. A variety of silica nanoparticles without any surface coating and with different coatings were tested, and the concept of hydrophilic/CO2-philic balance (HCB) was found to be very useful in designing surface coatings that provide foams with robust stability. Opaque, white CO2-in-water foams (bubble diameter < 100 µm) were generated with either polyethyleneglycol-coated silica or methylsilyl-modified silica nanoparticles with CO2 densities between 0.2 and 0.9 g/cc. The synergistic interactions at the surface of nanoparticles (bare colloidal silica) and surfactant (caprylamidopropyl betaine) in generating stable CO2 foams were also investigated.
The common and distinct requirements to generate stable CO2 foams with 5-nm silica nanoparticles, in rock matrices and in fractures, were characterized by running foam generation experiments in Boise and Berea sandstone cores. The threshold shear rates for foam generation in matrix and in fracture, both in Boise and Berea sandstones, were characterized. The ability of nanoparticles to generate foams only above a threshold shear rate is advantageous, because high shear rates are associated with high permeability zones and fractures. Reducing CO2 mobility in these zones with foam diverts CO2 into lower permeability regions that still contain unswept oil.
A three-dimensional multiphase numerical model was used to simulate the infiltration and dissolution of a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) release in two experimental flow cells containing different heterogeneous and well-characterized permeability fields. DNAPL infiltration was modeled using Brooks-Corey-Burdine hysteretic constitutive relationships. DNAPL dissolution was simulated using a rate-limited mass transfer expression with a velocity-dependent mass transfer coefficient and a thermodynamically based calculation of DNAPL-water interfacial area. The model did not require calibration of any parameters. The model predictions were compared to experimental measurements of high-resolution DNAPL saturations and effluent concentrations. The predicted concentrations were in close agreement with measurements for both domains, indicating that important processes were effectively captured by the model. DNAPL saturations greatly influenced mass transfer rates through their effect on relative permeability and velocity. Areas with low DNAPL saturation were associated with low interfacial areas, which resulted in reduced mass transfer rates and nonequilibrium dissolution. This was captured by the thermodynamic interfacial area model, while a geometric model overestimated the interfacial areas and the overall mass transfer. This study presents the first validation of the thermodynamic dissolution model in three dimensions and for high aqueous phase velocities; such conditions are typical for remediation operations, especially in heterogeneous aquifers. The demonstrated ability to predict DNAPL dissolution, only requiring prior characterization of soil properties and DNAPL release conditions, represents a significant improvement compared to empirical dissolution models and provides an opportunity to delineate the relationship between source zone architecture and the remediation potential for complex DNAPL source zones.