Journal Publications List (*indicates corresponding author)

L.L. Raja, A. K. Sreekanth, S. Santhakumar*, "Internal gas dynamics analysis of a compressed gas launcher", Journal of Aeronautical Society of India, Vol. 42, No.4, Nov. 1990, pp. 305308. (view PDF)

Y.A. Hassan* and L.L. Raja, ``Analysis of experiments for steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases using the RELAP5/MOD3 code,'' Nuclear Technology, Vol. 104, No. 1, Oct. 1993. (view PDF)

Y.A. Hassan* and L.L. Raja, ``Simulation of loss of RHR during midloop operations and the role of steam generators in decay heat removal using the RELAP5/MOD3 code,'' Nuclear Technology, Vol. 103, Sept. 1993. (view PDF)

L.L. Raja, P.L. Varghese, and D.E. Wilson*, ``Modeling of the electrothermal ignitor metal vapor plasma for electrothermalchemical guns,'' IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 33, No. 1, Jan. 1997. (view PDF)

L.L. Raja, P.L. Varghese, and D.E. Wilson*, ``Modeling of the electrogun metal vapor plasma discharge,'' AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 11, No. 3, Jul.Sept. 1997. (view PDF)

L.L. Raja*, R.J. Kee, and L.R. Petzold, ``Simulation of transient, compressible, gasdynamic, behavior of catalyticcombustion ignition in stagnation flows,'' Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 27, 1998, pp. 22492257. (view PDF)

D.E. Wilson*, K. Kim, and L.L. Raja, ``Theoretical analysis of an external pulsed plasma jet,'' IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 35, No. 1, Jan. 1999. (view PDF)

L.L. Raja*, R.J. Kee, O. Deutschmann, J. Warnatz, and L.D. Schmidt, ``A critical comparison of NavierStokes, boundarylayer, and plugflow model for the simulation of flow and chemistry in a catalytic combustion honeycomb channel,'' Catalysis Today, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2000, pp. 4760. (view PDF)

H.G. Im*, L.L. Raja, R.J. Kee, and L.R. Petzold, ``A numerical study of transient ignition in counterflow nonpremixed methaneair system using adaptive time integration,'' Combustion Science and Technology, Vol. 158, 2000, pp. 341364. (view PDF)

L.L. Raja*, R.J. Kee, R. Serban, and L.R. Petzold, ``Computational algorithm for dynamic optimization of chemicalvapordeposition processes in stagnationflow reactors,'' Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 147, No. 7, 2000, pp. 27182726. (view PDF)

R.J. Kee*, W.H. Yang, L.L. Raja, and C.A. Wolden, ``The influence of pressure, fluid flow, and chemistry on the flamebased oxidation of silicon,'' Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28, 2000, pp. 13811388. (view PDF)

T. L. Vincent and L.L. Raja*, ``Approach for control of highdensity plasma process parameters through optimal pulse shaping,'' Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, Vol. 20, No. 5, Sep/Oct 2002, pp. 17221732. (view PDF)

X. Yuan and L. L. Raja*, ``Role of trace impurities in largevolume noble gas atmosphericpressure glow discharges,'' Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 81, No. 5, July 2002, pp. 814816. (view PDF)

L. L. Raja* and M. Linne, ``Analytical model for ion angular distribution functions at rf biased surfaces with collisionless plasma sheaths,'' Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 92, No. 12, Dec. 2002, pp. 70327040. (view PDF)

P. Kothnur, X. Yuan, L. L. Raja*, ``Structure of directcurrent microdischarge plasmas in helium,'' Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 82, No. 4, Jan. 2003, pp. 529531. (view PDF)

X. Yuan and L. L. Raja*, ``Computational study of capacitively coupled atmosphericpressure glow discharge in helium,'' IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, Aug. 2003, pp. 495503. (view PDF)

J. Shin and L. L. Raja*, ``Dynamics of pulse phenomena in helium dielectricbarrier atmosphericpressure glow discharges,'' Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 94, No. 12, Dec. 2003, pp. 74087415. (view PDF)

T. L. Vincent* and L. L. Raja, ``Theory of optimal pulse shaping for plasma processing,'' IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 12, No. 1, January 2004, pp. 7586. (view PDF)

G. Chen and L. L. Raja*, ``Fluid modeling of electron heating in lowpressure, highfrequency capacitively coupled plasma discharges,'' Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 96, No. 11, Dec 2004, pp. 60736081. (view PDF)

P. S. Kothnur and L. L. Raja*, ``Twodimensional simulation of a directcurrent microhollow cathode discharge,'' Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, 043305, Feb 2005. (view PDF)

P. S. Kothnur, J. Shin, and L. L. Raja*, ``Experimental and Numerical Study of External Plume Characteristics in Microhollow Cathode Discharges, '' IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr. 2005, pp. 564565. (4th Triennial Special Issue on Images in Plasma Science). (view PDF)

J. Shin and L. L. Raja*, ``MicrodischargeAssisted Ignition of DielectricBarrier HighPressure Glow Discharges, '' Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Jan 2006, pp. 02150213. (view PDF)

X. Yuan, J. Shin, and L. L. Raja*, ``OneDimensional Simulations of Multi Pulse Phenomena in DielectricBarrier AtmosphericPressure Glow Discharges, '' Vacuum, Vol. 80, 2006, pp. 11991205. (view PDF)

G. Chen, A. V. Arefiev, R. D. Bengtson, B. N. Breizman, C. A. Lee, and L. L. Raja, ``Resonant power absorption in helicon plasma sources,'' Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 13, Dec. 2006, pp. 123507111. (view PDF)

P. S. Kothnur and L. L. Raja*, ``Simulation of directcurrent microdischarges for application in electrothermal class of small satellite propulsion devices, '' Contributions to Plasma Physics, Vol. 27, No. 12, Feb. 2007, pp. 918. (view PDF)

J. Shin and L. L. Raja*, ``Runtorun variations, asymmetric pulses, and long time scale transient phenomena in dielectricbarrier atmosphericpressure glow discharges, '' Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol 40, No. 10, May 2007, pp. 31453154. (view PDF)

J. Shin, V. Narayanaswamy, L. L. Raja*, and N. T. Clemens*, ``Characterization of a DirectCurrent Glow Discharge Plasma Actuator in LowPressure Supersonic Flow, '' AIAA Journal, Vol. 45, no. 7, July 2007, pp. 15961605. (view PDF)

T. Deconinck, S. Mahadevan and L. L. Raja*, ``Simulation of DirectCurrent Surface Plasma Discharge Phenomena in HighSpeed Flow Actuation," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 35, No. 5, Oct 2007, pp. 1301. (view PDF)

T. Deconinck, S. Mahadevan and L. L. Raja*, ``Simulation of DirectCurrent Microdischarge for the Micro Plasma Thruster," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 36, No. 4, Aug 2008, pp. 12001201. (view PDF)

J. Shin, N. T. Clemens*, and L. L. Raja*, ``Schlieren imaging of flow actuation produced by directcurrent surface glow discharge in supersonic flows," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 36, No. 4, Aug 2008, pp. 13161317. (view PDF)

D. F. Berisford, R. D. Bengtson*, L. L. Raja*, L. D. Cassady, and W. J. Chancery, ``Heat flow diagnostics for helicon plasmas," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 79, No. 10, Oct 2008, pp. 10F51513. (view PDF)

T. Deconinck and L. L. Raja*, ``Modeling of Mode Transition Behavior in Argon Microhollow Cathode Discharges,'' Plasma Processes and Polymers, Vol. 6, No. 5, Apr 2009. (Invited paper) (view PDF)

T. Deconinck, S. Mahadevan, and L. L. Raja*, ``Discretization of the Joule Heating Term for Plasma Discharge Fluid Models in Unstructured Meshes,'' Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 228, 2009, pp. 44354443. (view PDF)

T. Deconinck, S. Mahadevan, and L. L. Raja*, ``Computational simulation of coupled nonequilibrium discharge and compressible flow phenomena in a micro plasma thruster,'' Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, Oct 2009, pp. 063305 113. (view PDF)

V. Narayanaswamy, L. L. Raja*, and N. T. Clemens*, ''Characterization of a HighFrequency Pulsed Plasma Jet Actuator,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 48, No. 2, Feb 2010, pp. 297305.

J. Shin and L. L. Raja*, “Cathodesheath driven lowspeed aerodynamic flow actuation using directcurrent surface glow discharges,”Journal of Electrostatics, Vol. 68, 2010, pp. 453457. (view PDF)

D. F. Berisford, R. D. Bengtson*, and L. L. Raja*, “Power balance and wall erosion measurements in a helicon plasma,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, No.3, Mar 2010, pp. 33503. (view PDF)

S. Mahadevan and L. L. Raja*, “Simulations of directcurrent air glow discharge at pressures ~ 1Torr: discharge model validation,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, No. 9, May 2010, pp. 093304 111. (view PDF)

J. M. Albright, L. L. Raja*, M. Manley, K. RaviChandar*, and S. Satapathy*, “Studies of AsperityScale Plasma Discharge Phenomena,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 39., No. 6, June 2011, pp. 15601565. (view PDF)

H. Sitaraman and L. L. Raja*, “Gas temperature effects in micrometerscale dielectric barrier discharges,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 44, 2011, pp. 265201111.

H. Sitaraman and L. L. Raja*, “Simulation of RF Microdischarges for Microthruster Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science (Special Issue on Images in Plasma Science), Vol. 39, No. 11, Nov. 2011, pp. 29302931.

D. Breden and L. L. Raja*, “Gas Heating Effects in a Pulse Nanosecond Streamer Discharge Interacting with a Supersonic O2H2 Flow,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science (Special Issue on Images in Plasma Science), Vol. 39, No. 11, Nov. 2011, pp. 22502251.

S. Mahadevan and L. L. Raja*, “Simulation of DirectCurrent Surface Plasma Discharges in Air for Supersonic Flow Control,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 50, Feb. 2012, pp. 325337.

V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and L. L. Raja, “Method for acquiring pressure measurements in presence of plasmainduced interference for supersonic flow control applications,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 22, Nov. 2011, pp. 125107111.

D. Breden and L. L. Raja*, “Simulations of nanosecond pulsed plasmas in supersonic flows for combustion applications,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 50, No. 3, Mar. 2012, pp. 647658.

V. Narayanaswamy, L. L. Raja, and N. T. Clemens, “Control of a shock/boundarylayer interaction by using a pulsedplasma jet actuator,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. 246249.

D. Breden, K. Miki, and L. L. Raja, “Computational study of cold atmospheric nanosecond pulsed helium plasma jet in air,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, Nov. 2011, pp. 111501.

V. Narayanaswamy, L. L. Raja*, and N. T. Clemens*, “Control of Unsteadiness of a Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary layer Interaction by using a PulsedPlasma Jet Actuator,” Physics of Fluids, Vol. 24, No. 7, Jul 2012, pp. 076101.

H. Sitaraman and L. L. Raja*, “Simulations studies of RF excited Micro Cavity Discharges for micropropulsion applications,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 45, 2012, pp. 185201.

D. Breden, K. Miki, and L. L. Raja*, “Selfconsistent twodimensional modeling of cold atmosphericpressure plasma jets/bullets,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Vol. 21, 2012, pp. 034011.

L. L. Raja*, S. Mahadevan, P. L. G. Ventzek, and J. Yoshikawa, “Computational modeling study of the radial line slot antenna microwave plasma source with comparison to experiments,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2013, pp. 031304111.

D. Breden, L. L. Raja*, C. A. Idicheria, P. M. Najt, and S. Mahadevan, “A numerical study of highpressure nonequilibrium streamers for combustion ignition application,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, 2013, pp. 083302114.

H. Sitaraman and L. L. Raja*, “A matrix free implicit scheme for the resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations on unstructured grids,” Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 251, 2013, pp. 364382.

R. R. Upadhyay, I. Sawada, P. L. G. Ventzek, and L. L. Raja, “Effect of electromagnetic waves and higher harmonics in capacitively coupled plasma phenomena,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (Fast Track Communications), Vol. 46, 2013, pp. 472001.

B. Pafford, J. Sirohi*, and L. L. Raja*, “PropagatingArc Magnetohydrodynamic Plasma Actuator for Directional HighAuthority Flow Control in Atmospheric Air,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol., 46, 2013, pp. 485208 (7 pages).

H. Sitaraman and L. L. Raja*, “Magnetohydrodynamics simulation study of deflagration mode in coaxial plasma accelerators,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 21, 2014, pp.012104112 (12 pages).

M. V. Pachuilo, F. Stefani, L. L. Raja*, R. D. Bengtson, G. A. Henkelman, A. C. Tas, W. M. Kriven_{, }S. K Sinha, “Development of a Gasfed Plasma Source for Pulsed Highdensity Plasma/Material Interaction Studies,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2014, pp. 32453252 (7 pages).

I. Sawada*, P. L. G. Ventzek*, B. Lane, T. Ohshita, R. R. Upadhyay and L. L. Raja*, “Factors influencing centerpeaked plasma density profiles in Very High Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma reactors,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol, 53, 2014, pp. 03DB016 (6 pages).

D. Breden and L. L. Raja*, “Computational study of the interaction of cold atmospheric helium plasma jets with surfaces,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Vol. 23, 2014, pp. 065020 (15 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Breakdown of atmospheric pressure microgaps at high excitation frequencies,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 117, 2015, pp. 173303. (9 pages)

S. Kar, H. Kousaka, and L. L. Raja, “Spatiotemporal behavior of microwave sheathvoltage combination plasma source,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 117, 2015, pp. 183302 (7 pages)

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Effect of frequency on microplasmas driven by microwave excitation,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 118, 2015, pp. 043303. (6 pages)

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Dynamics of a wiretocylinder atmospheric pressure highvoltage nanosecond discharge,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, 2015, pp. 083507 (6 pages).

Y.J. Choi, J. Sirohi, L. L. Raja, “Measurement of transient force produced by a propagating are magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator in quiescent atmospheric air" Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 48, 2015, pp. 425204 (11 pages).

M. Gray, Y.J. Choi, J. Sirohi, and L. L. Raja, “Structure of Propagating Arc in a MagnetoHydrodynamic Rail Plasma Actuator,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 49, 2015, pp. 015202 (10 pages).

P. Paneerchelvam and L. L. Raja, “Computational modeling of the effect of electron injection into a DC microdischarge,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 118, 2015, pp. 243301 (11 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Early stage time evolution of a dense nanosecond microdischarge used in fast optical switching applications,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, 2016, pp. 123518 (7 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Influence of emitter temperature on the energy deposition in a lowpressure plasma,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, 2016, pp. 032107 (8 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Response to “Comment on ‘Early stage time evolution of a dense nanosecond microdischarge used in fast optical switching applications’” [Phys. Plasmas 23, 034705 (2016)],” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, 2016, pp. 034706 (2 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja “Particleincell modeling of gasconfined barrier discharge, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, 2016, pp. 043502 (6 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Influence of field emission on the propagation of cylindrical fast ionization wave in atmosphericpressure nitrogen,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, 2016, pp. 153301 (7 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Influence of field emission on microwave microdischarges,” High Voltage, Vol. 1, 2016, pp. 5759 (3 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja “Electron kinetics in atmosphericpressure argon and nitrogen microwave microdischarge,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, 2016, pp. 163303 (10 pages).

D. Levko, A. Sharma, L. L. Raja, “Microwave plasmas generated in bubbles immersed in liquids for hydrocarbons reforming,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 49, 2016, pp. 22LT01 (7 pages).

D. Levko, A. Sharma, L. L. Raja, “Plasmas generated in bubbles immersed in liquids: direct current streamers vs. microwave plasma,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol 49, 2016, pp. 285205 (10 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Fluid modeling of a highvoltage nanosecond pulsed xenon microdischarge,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, 2016, pp. 073513 (5 pages).

P. Panneer Chelvam, L. L. Raja, and R. R. Upadhyay, “Computational modeling of a single microdischarge interactions with high frequency electromagnetic waves,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 49, 2016, pp. 345501 (11 pages).

K. Kourtzanidis and L. L. Raja, “On the accuracy of the rate coefficients used in plasmas fluid models for breakdown in air,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, 2016, 074503 (4 pages).

K. Kourtzanidis, D. Pederson, and L. L. Raja, “Active electromagnetic energy flow control with a tunable and reconfigurable coupled plasma splitring resonator metamaterial: Influence of basic conditions and configurations,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, 2016, 204904 (10 pages).

A. Sharma, D. Levko, L. L. Raja, and M.S. Cha, “Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmosphericpressure gas bubbles suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 49, 2016, pp. 395205 (22 pages).

A. Sharma, D. Levko, and L. L. Raja, “Effect of oxygen impurities on atmosphericpressure surface streamer discharge in argon for large gap breakdown,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, 2016, pp. 103501 (11 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Effect of negative gases admixture on the stability of beamdriven discharges,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Vol. 25, 2016, pp. 064003 (7 pages).

D. Levko, A. Sharma, and L. L. Raja, “Nonthermal plasma ethanol reforming in bubbles immersed in liquids,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 50, 2017, pp. 085202 (15 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Fluid vs. global model approach for the modeling of active species production by streamer discharge,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Vol. 26, 2017, pp 035003 (16 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Magnetized direct current microdischarge I: Effect of the gas pressure,” Journal of Applied Physics 121, 093302 (2017). (9 pages).

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Magnetized direct current microdischarge II: Effect of magnetic field amplitude on the plasma,” Journal of Applied Physics 121, 093303 (2017). [6 pages]

K. Kourtzanidis and L. L. Raja, “Analysis and characterization of microwave plasma generated with rectangular alldielectric resonators,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology 26, 045007 (2017). [13 pages]

K. Kourtzanidis and L. L. Raja, “Threeelectrode sliding nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge actuator: modeling and physics,” AIAA Journal 55, 1393 (2017). [12 pages]

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Kinetic effects during the interaction between high density microplasma and electromagnetic wave,” Physics of Plasmas 24, 043509 (2017). [7 pages]

V. Subramaniam and L. L. Raja, “Magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of plasma jets and plasmasurface contact in coaxial plasma accelerators,” Physics of Plasmas 24, 062507 (2017). [12 pages]

M. V. Pachuilo, F. Stefani, R. D. Bengtson, D. Dipti, R. Srivastava, and L. L. Raja, “Dynamics of surface streamer plasmas at atmospheric pressure: Mixture of argon and methane, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 45, 1776 (2017). [12 pages]

YJ. Choi, M. Gray, J. Sirohi, and L. L. Raja, “Effect of electrode configuration and arc structure on a rail plasma actuator,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50, 355203 (2017). [15 pages]

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Particleincell modeling of streamer branching in CO2 gas,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50, 354004 (2017). [10 pages]

D. Levko, M. Pachuilo, and L. L. Raja, “Population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide by cylindrical fast ionization wave,” Physics of Plasmas 24, 093513 (2017). [9 pages]

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “The effect of electron processes on metal walls in the magnetized microdischarge,” Journal of Applied Physics 122, 163301 (2017). [7 pages]

P. Panneer Chelvam and L. L. Raja, “Modeling of gas breakdown and early transients of plasma evolution in cylindrical alldielectric resonators”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50, 474003 (2017). [11 pages]

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “On the production of energetic electrons at the negative streamer head at moderate overvoltage,” Physics of Plasmas 25, 124503 (2017). [4 pages].

T. Iwao, P. L. G. Ventzek, R. Upadhyay, L. L. Raja, H. Ueda, and K. Ishibashi, “Measurements and modeling of the impact of radical recombination on silicon nitride growth in microwave plasma assisted atomic layer deposition,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 36, 01A111 (2018). [9 pages]

D. Levko and L. L. Raja, “Highvoltage microdischarge as a source of extreme density plasma,” Physics of Plasmas 25, 013509 (2018). [9 pages]

V. Subramaniam, T. C. Underwood, L. L. Raja, and M. A. Cappelli, “Computational and experimental investigation of plasma deflagration jets and detonation shocks in coaxial plasma accelerators" Plasma Sources Science and Technology 27, 025016 (2018). [14 pages]

D. Levko, A. Sharma, and L. L. Raja, “Kinetic modeling of streamer penetration into deionized water,” Physics of Plasmas 25, 033515 (2018). [7 pages].
 L. L. Raja, A. Bourdon, and P. L. G. Ventzek, “Editorial: Recent advances in the modeling and computer simulations of nonequilibrium plasma discharges,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 51, 150202 (2018). [5 pages]