H. X. Ji, Zhang, L. L., Pettes, M. T., Li, H. F., Chen, S. S., Shi, L., Piner, R., and Ruoff, R. S., “"Ultra-Thin Graphite Foam: A Three-Dimensional Conductive Network for Battery Electrodes,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, pp. 2446–2451, 2012.
We report the use of free-standing, lightweight, and highly conductive ultrathin graphite foam (UGF), loaded with lithium iron phosphate (LFP), as a cathode in a lithium ion battery. At a high charge/discharge current density of 1280 mA g–1, the specific capacity of the LFP loaded on UGF was 70 mAh g–1, while LFP loaded on Al foil failed. Accounting for the total mass of the electrode, the maximum specific capacity of the UGF/LFP cathode was 23% higher than that of the Al/LFP cathode and 170% higher than that of the Ni-foam/LFP cathode. Using UGF, both a higher rate capability and specific capacity can be achieved simultaneously, owing to its conductive (1.3 × 105 S m–1 at room temperature) and three-dimensional lightweight (9.5 mg cm–3) graphitic structure. Meanwhile, UGF presents excellent electrochemical stability comparing to that of Al and Ni foils, which are generally used as conductive substrates in lithium ion batteries. Moreover, preparation of the UGF electrode was facile, cost-effective, and compatible with various electrochemically active materials.