L. Shi, Zhou, J. H., Kim, P., Bachtold, A., McEuen, P. L., and Majumdar, A., “Thermal Probing of Energy Dissipation in Current-Carrying Carbon Nanotubes,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 105, pp. 104306, 2009.
The temperature distributions in current-carrying carbon nanotubes have been measured with a scanning thermal microscope. The obtained temperature profiles reveal diffusive and dissipative electron transport in multiwalled nanotubes and in single-walled nanotubes when the voltage bias was higher than the 0.1–0.2 eV optical phonon energy. Over 90% of the Joule heat in a multiwalled nanotube was found to be conducted along the nanotube to the two metal contacts. In comparison, about 80% of the Joule heat was transferred directly across the nanotube-substrate interface for single-walled nanotubes. The average temperature rise in the nanotubes is determined to be in the range of 5–42 K per microwatt Joule heat dissipation in the nanotubes.