H. K. Lyeo, Khajetoorians, A. A., Shi, L., Pipe, K. P., Ram, R. J., Shakouri, A., and Shih, C. K., “Profiling the Thermoelectric Power of Semiconductor Junctions with Nanometer Resolution,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5659, pp. 816–818, 2004.
We have probed the local thermoelectric power of semiconductor nanostructures with the use of ultrahigh-vacuum scanning thermoelectric microscopy. When applied to a p-n junction, this method reveals that the thermoelectric power changes its sign abruptly within 2 nanometers across the junction. Because thermoelectric power correlates with electronic structure, we can profile with nanometer spatial resolution the thermoelectric power, band structures, and carrier concentrations of semiconductor junctions that constitute the building blocks of thermoelectric, electronic, and optoelectronic devices.