T. M. Truskett, Johnston, K. P., Maynard, J. A., Borwankar, A. U., Murthy, A. K., Stover, R. J., Wilson, B. K., Dinin, A. K., Laber, J. R., and Gourisankar, S., “Assembling nanoclusters in water for therapy or imaging,” ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 247. AMER CHEMICAL SOC 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA, 2014.
Oil-in-water emulsions were formed and stabilized at low amphiphile concentrations by combining hydrophilic nanoparticles (NPs) (i.e., bare colloidal silica) with a weakly interacting zwitterionic surfactant, caprylamidopropyl betaine, to generate a high hydrophilic–lipophilic balance. The weak interaction of the NPs with surfactant was quantified with contact angle measurements. Emulsions were characterized by static light scattering to determine the droplet size distributions, optical photography to quantify phase separation due to creaming, and both optical and electron microscopy to determine emulsion microstructure. The NPs and surfactant acted synergistically to produce finer emulsions with a greater stability to coalescence relative to the behavior with either NPs or surfactant alone. As a consequence of the weak adsorption of the highly hydrophilic surfactant on the anionic NPs along with the high critical micelle concentration, an unusually large surfactant concentration was available to adsorb at the oil–water interface and lower the interfacial tension. The synergy for emulsion formation and stabilization for the two amphiphiles was even greater in the case of a high-salinity synthetic seawater aqueous phase. Here, higher NP adsorption at the oil–water interface was caused by electrostatic screening of interactions between (1) NPs and the anionic oil–water interface and (2) between the NPs. This greater adsorption as well as partial flocculation of the NPs provided a more efficient barrier to droplet coalescence
Synergistic interactions between appropriately designed surface-modified nanoparticles and surfactants are shown to stabilize foams of CO2 bubbles/droplets dispersed in water at elevated temperature and pressure typical of subsurface formations for enhanced oil recovery or geologic storage of CO2. The foams are sufficiently viscous to mitigate or eliminate the instability associated with CO2 displacement of fluids resident in the oil reservoir or brine aquifer. This technology therefore has the potential to increase the efficiency of oil recovery and the efficiency of pore space utilization for storage.
The design of switchable amine surfactants for CO2 EOR in carbonate reservoirs at high temperatures is challenging because of the increase in the pH due to dissolution of calcium carbonate at acidic conditions. The increased pH hinders the protonation of the surfactant and its aqueous solubility. In this work, the addition of a second amine headgroup ensured that C16-18 N(EO) C3N(EO)2 is soluble in 22%TDS brine at neutral pH conditions. Also, captive bubble tensiometry measurements confirmed the activity of the surfactant at the C-W interface by large reduction in the interfacial tension coupled with high adsorption. Also, the surfactant generated viscous foam that can stabilize the displacement front in CO2 EOR processes and decrease the mobility of CO2 for enhanced CO2 sequestration
During deep-sea oil leaks, dispersants may be used to break up the oil into droplets smaller than about 70 μm, which may then be bioremediated by bacteria before they reach the ocean surface. To investigate the mechanism of droplet formation as a function of dispersant type, concentration, and jet velocity, a flowing oleophilic stream containing amphiphiles was mixed with flowing dodecane and then atomized through a 0.25 mm circular nozzle. The minimum droplet diameters were 2.2, 4.5, and 24 μm for only 5 w:v % amphiphile in the oil phase for Corexit 9500A, Tergitol 15-S-7 (C12H25CH(OCH2CH2)7OH), and a silica nanoparticle/Span 20 mixture, respectively. For Tergitol 15-S-7, the droplet size exhibited the expected scaling with Weber number (We) at low viscosity numbers (Vi < 50), where inertial forces overcome interfacial forces, and Reynolds number (Re) at high Vi numbers (Vi > 50), where inertial forces overcome viscous forces. However, in the case of the silica nanoparticle/Span 20 mixture, the magnitude of the exponent of We scaling was found to be smaller than −3/5. A better understanding of how low concentrations of dispersants (with relatively high oil–water interfacial tensions) may be used to provide a sufficient We with high inertial forces (high Re) in jets to form small oil droplets, which is of interest for advancing environmental protection in the undesired event of a deep-sea oil leak
Nanoparticles (diameter of approximately 5 to 50 nm) easily pass through typical pore throats in reservoirs, but physicochemical attraction between nanoparticles and pore walls may still lead to significant retention. We conducted an extensive series of nanoparticle-transport experiments in core plugs and in columns packed with crushed sedimentary rock, systematically varying flow rate, type of nanoparticle, injection-dispersion concentration, and porous-medium properties. Effluent-nanoparticle-concentration histories were measured with fine resolution in time, enabling the evaluation of nanoparticle adsorption in the columns during slug injection and post-flushes. We also applied this analysis to nanoparticle-transport experiments reported in the literature.
Our analysis suggests that nanoparticles undergo both reversible and irreversible adsorption. Effluent-nanoparticle concentration reaches the injection concentration during slug injection, indicating the existence of an adsorption capacity. Experiments with a variety of nanoparticles and porous media yield a wide range of adsorption capacities (from 10–5 to 101 mg/g for nanoparticles and rock, respectively) and also a wide range of proportions of reversible and irreversible adsorption. Reversible- and irreversible-adsorption sites are distinct and interact with nanoparticles independently. The adsorption capacities are typically much smaller than monolayer coverage. Their values depend not only on the type of nanoparticle and porous media, but also on the operating conditions, such as injection concentration and flow rate
The mechanism by which polymers, when grafted to inorganic nanoparticles, lower the interfacial tension at the oil–water interface is not well understood, despite the great interest in particle stabilized emulsions and foams. A simple and highly versatile free radical “grafting through” technique was used to bond high organic fractions (by weight) of poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether methacrylate) onto iron oxide clusters, without the need for catalysts. In the resulting ∼1 μm hybrid particles, the inorganic cores and grafting architecture contribute to the high local concentration of grafted polymer chains to the dodecane/water interface to produce low interfacial tensions of only 0.003 w/v % (polymer and particle core). This “critical particle concentration” (CPC) for these hybrid inorganic/polymer amphiphilic particles to lower the interfacial tension by 36 mN/m was over 30-fold lower than the critical micelle concentration of the free polymer (without inorganic cores) to produce nearly the same interfacial tension. The low CPC is favored by the high adsorption energy (∼106 kBT) for the large ∼1 μm hybrid particles, the high local polymer concentration on the particles surfaces, and the ability of the deformable hybrid nanocluster cores as well as the polymer chains to conform to the interface. The nanocluster cores also increased the entanglement of the polymer chains in bulk DI water or synthetic seawater, producing a viscosity up to 35 000 cP at 0.01 s–1, in contrast with only 600 cP for the free polymer. As a consequence of these interfacial and rheological properties, the hybrid particles stabilized oil-in-water emulsions at concentrations as low as 0.01 w/v %, with average drop sizes down to 30 μm. In contrast, the bulk viscosity was low for the free polymer, and it did not stabilize the emulsions. The ability to influence the interfacial activity and rheology of polymers upon grafting them to inorganic particles, including clusters, may be expected to be broadly applicable to stabilization of emulsions and foams
A facile “grafting through” approach was developed to tether tunable quantities of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) as well as zwitterionic poly([3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) (PMPDSA) homopolymer onto iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (NPs). In this case, homopolymers may be grafted, unlike “grafting to” approaches that often require copolymers containing anchor groups. The polymer coating provided steric stabilization of the NP dispersions at high salinities and elevated temperature (90 °C) and almost completely prevented adsorption of the NPs on silica microparticles and crushed Berea sandstone. The adsorption of PAMPS IO NPs decreased with the polymer loading, whereby the magnitude of the particle-surface electrosteric repulsion increased. The zwitterionic PMPDSA IO NPs displayed 1 order of magnitude less adsorption onto crushed Berea sandstone relative to the anionic PAMPS IO NPs. The ability to design homopolymer coatings on nanoparticle surfaces by the “grafting through” technique is of broad interest for designing stable dispersions and modulating the interactions between nanoparticles and solid surfaces
The present invention also provides a high concentration low viscosity suspension of an pharmaceutically acceptable solvent with one or more sub-micron or micron-sized non-crystalline particles comprising one or more proteins or peptides. Optionally one or more additives in the pharmaceutically acceptable solvent to form a high concentration low viscosity suspension with a concentration of at least 20 mg/ml and a solution viscosity of between 2 and 100 centipoise that is suspendable upon shaking or agitation, wherein upon delivery the one or more sub-micron or micron-sized peptides dissolves and do not form peptide aggregates syringeable through a 21 to 27-gauge needle.
Environmentally benign clay particles are of great interest for the stabilization of Pickering emulsions. Dodecane-in-synthetic seawater (SSW) emulsions formed with montmorillonite (MMT) clay microparticles modified with bis(2-hydroxyethyl)oleylamine were stable against coalescence, even at clay concentrations down to 0.1% w/v. Remarkably, as little as 0.001% w/v surfactant lowered the hydrophilicity of the clay to a sufficient level for stabilization of oil-in-SSW emulsions. The favorable effect of SSW on droplet size reduction and emulsion stability enhancement is hypothesized to be due to reduced electrostatic repulsion between adsorbed clay particles and a consequent increase in the continuous phase (an aqueous clay suspension) viscosity. Water/oil (W/O) emulsions were inverted to O/W either by decreasing the mass ratio of surfactant-to-clay (transitional inversion) or by increasing the water volume fraction (catastrophic inversion). For both types of emulsions, coalescence was minimal and the sedimentation or creaming was highly correlated with the droplet size. For catastrophic inversions, the droplet size of the emulsions was smaller in the case of the preferred curvature. Suspensions of concentrated clay in oil dispersions in the presence of surfactant were stable against settling. The mass transfer pathways during emulsification of oil containing the clay particles were analyzed on the droplet size/stability phase diagrams to provide insight for the design of dispersant systems for remediating surface and subsurface oceanic oil spills
Perovskite oxides have attracted significant attention as energy conversion materials for metal–air battery and solid-oxide fuel-cell electrodes owing to their unique physical and electronic properties. Amongst these unique properties is the structural stability of the cation array in perovskites that can accommodate mobile oxygen ions under electrical polarization. Despite oxygen ion mobility and vacancies having been shown to play an important role in catalysis, their role in charge storage has yet to be explored. Herein we investigate the mechanism of oxygen-vacancy-mediated redox pseudocapacitance for a nanostructured lanthanum-based perovskite, LaMnO3. This is the first example of anion-based intercalation pseudocapacitance as well as the first time oxygen intercalation has been exploited for fast energy storage. Whereas previous pseudocapacitor and rechargeable battery charge storage studies have focused on cation intercalation, the anion-based mechanism presented here offers a new paradigm for electrochemical energy storage
Gold nanospheres coated with a binary monolayer of bound citrate and cysteine ligands were assembled into nanoclusters, in which the size and near-infrared (NIR) extinction were tuned by varying the pH and concentration of added NaCl. During full evaporation of an aqueous dispersion of 4.5 ± 1.8 nm Au primary particles, the nanoclusters were formed and quenched by the triblock copolymer polylactic acid (PLA)(1K)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)(10K)-b-PLA(1K), which also provided steric stabilization. The short-ranged depletion and van der Waals attractive forces were balanced against longer ranged electrostatic repulsion to tune the nanocluster diameter and NIR extinction. Upon lowering the pH from 7 to 5 at a given salinity, the magnitude of the charge on the primary particles decreased, such that the weaker electrostatic repulsion increased the hydrodynamic diameter and, consequently, NIR extinction of the clusters. At a given pH, as the concentration of NaCl was increased, the NIR extinction decreased monotonically. Furthermore, the greater screening of the charges on the nanoclusters weakened the interactions with PLA(1K)-b-PEG(10K)-b-PLA(1K) and thus lowered the amount of adsorbed polymer on the nanocluster surface. The generalization of the concept of self-assembly of small NIR-active nanoclusters to include a strongly bound thiol and the manipulation of the morphologies and NIR extinction by variation of pH and salinity not only is of fundamental interest but also is important for optical biomedical imaging and therapy
The present invent ion also provides a high concentration low viscosity suspension of an pharmaceutically acceptable solvent with one or more sub-micron or micron-sized non-crystalline particles comprising one or more proteins or peptides. Optionally one or more additives in the pharmaceutically acceptable solvent to form a high concentration low viscosity suspension with a concentration of at least 20 mg/ml and a solution viscosity of between 2 and 100 centipoise that is suspendable upon shaking or agitation, wherein upon delivery the one or more sub-micron or micron-sized peptides dissolves and do not form peptide aggregates syringeable through a 21 to 27-gauge needle
We present a series of perovskite electrocatalysts that are highly active for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte. Lanthanum-based perovskites containing different transition metal active sites (LaBO3, B = Ni, Ni0.75Fe0.25, Co, Mn) are synthesized by a general colloidal method, yielding phase pure catalysts of homogeneous morphology and surface area (8–14 m2/g). Each perovskite’s ability to catalyze the OER and ORR is examined using thin film rotating disk electrochemistry (RDE). LaCoO3 supported on nitrogen-doped carbon is shown to be ∼3 times more active for the OER than high-surface-area IrO2. Furthermore, LaCoO3 is demonstrated to be highly bifunctional by having a lower total overpotential between the OER and ORR (ΔE = 1.00 V) than Pt (ΔE = 1.16) and Ru (ΔE = 1.01). The OER and ORR pathways are perturbed by the introduction of peroxide disproportionation functionality via support interactions and selective doping of the catalyst. LaNi0.75Fe0.25O3’s ability to disproportionate peroxide is hypothesized to be responsible for the ∼50% improvement over LaNiO3 in catalytic activity toward the ORR, despite similar electronic structure. These results allow us to examine the pathways for OER and ORR in context of support interactions, transition metal redox processes, and catalytic bifunctionality.