The distribution coefficients of the solutes (toluene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene) are reported at infinite dilution between silicone rubber and supercritical-fluid carbon dioxide. A new technique is described in which a thin film of polymer is coated and cross-linked onto silica, and the distribution coefficient is measured rapidly by elution supercritical-fluid chromatography. Because CO2 significantly enhances the solute’s volatility and its diffusion coefficient in the polymer, it is possible to study solute-polymer interactions at room temperature for nonvolatile compounds which would be difficult to study by conventional techniques such as gas chromatography. These infinite dilution data are used to determine solute-polymer interaction parameters to calculate phase diagrams over a wide concentration range. The residual, combinatorial, and cross-link contributions to the solute activity coefficient in the polymer are discussed as a function of concentration. In addition, pronounced pressure and temperature effects are described in terms of experimentally measured solute partial molar volumes (to - 14 L/mol) and partial molar enthalpies (to - 850 kJ/mol) in the fluid phase.
Shim, jj johnston, kp