### Citation:

C. E. Tinney, Ukeiley, L. S., and Glauser, M. N., “Low-dimensional characteristics of a transonic jet. Part 2: Estimate and far-field prediction,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 615, pp. 53–92, 2008.

### Abstract:

Complementary low-dimensional techniques are modified to estimate the most energetic turbulent features of a Mach 0.85 axisymmetric jet in the flow’s nearfield regions via spectral linear stochastic estimation. This model estimate is three-dimensional, comprises all three components of the velocity field and is time resolved. The technique employs the pressure field as the unconditional input, measured within the hydrodynamic periphery of the jet flow where signatures (pressure) are known to comprise a reasonable footprint of the turbulent large-scale structure. Spectral estimation coefficients are derived from the joint second-order statistics between coefficients that are representative of the low-order pressure field (Fourier-azimuthal decomposition) and of the low-order velocity field (proper orthogonal decomposition). A bursting-like event is observed in the low-dimensional estimate and is similar to what was found in the low-speed jet studies of others. A number of low-dimensional estimates are created using different velocity–pressure mode combinations from which predictions of the far-field acoustics are invoked using Lighthill’s analogy. The overall sound pressure level (OASPL) directivity is determined from the far-field prediction, which comprises qualitatively similar trends when compared to direct measurements at r/D =75. Retarded time topologies of the predicted field at 90" and 30" are also shown to manifest, respectively, high- and low-frequency wave-like motions when using a combination of only the low-order velocity modes (m=0, 1, 2). This work thus constitutes a first step in developing low-dimensional and dynamical system models from hydrodynamic pressure signatures for estimating and predicting the behaviour of the energy-containing events that govern many of the physical constituents of turbulent flows.