Wettability is a key reservoir characteristic influencing geological carbon sequestration (GCS) processes, such as CO2 transport and storage capacity. Wettability is often determined on a limited number of reservoir samples by measuring the contact angle at the CO2/brine/mineral interface, but the ability to predict this value remains a challenge. In this work, minerals comprising a natural reservoir sample were identified, and the influence of their surface roughness and mineralogy on the contact angle was quantified to evaluate predictive models and controlling mechanisms. The natural sample was obtained from the Mount Simon formation, a representative siliciclastic reservoir that is the site of a United States Department of Energy CO2 injection project. A thin section of the Mount Simon sandstone was examined with compound light microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Quartz and feldspar were identified as dominant minerals and were coated with various reddish black precipitates consistent with illite clay and iron oxide hematite. Contact angle (θ) measurements were conducted for the four representative minerals and the Mount Simon sample over a range of pressures (2–25 MPa) at 40 °C. At supercritical conditions, all samples are strongly water-wet, with contact angles between 27° and 45°. Several predictive models for contact angle were evaluated for the mineral and Mount Simon samples, including the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter models, plus newly proposed modifications of these that account for the fraction of different minerals comprising the reservoir sample surface, the surface roughness, and the extent that roughness pits are filled with brine. Modeling results suggest that the fraction of mineral surfaces containing roughness pits filled with brine is the most important reservoir characteristic that controls wettability in the Mount Simon sandstone, followed by surface mineralogy. To our knowledge, this is one of the few studies to investigate the effects of individual minerals on the wettability of a natural reservoir sample.
In two dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides, defect-related processes can significantly affect carrier dynamics and transport properties. Using femtosecond degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy, exciton capture, and release by mid-gap defects have been observed in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown monolayer MoSe2. The observed defect state filling shows a clear saturation at high exciton densities, from which the defect density is estimated to be around 0.5 × 1012/cm2. The exciton capture time extracted from experimental data is around ~ 1 ps, while the average fast and slow release times are 52 and 700 ps, respectively. The process of defect trapping excitons is found to exist uniquely in CVD grown samples, regardless of substrate and sample thickness. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements on CVD and exfoliated samples suggest that the oxygen-associated impurities could be responsible for the exciton trapping. Our results bring new insights to understand the role of defects in capturing and releasing excitons in 2D materials, and demonstrate an approach to estimate the defect density nondestructively, both of which will facilitate the design and application of optoelectronics devices based on CVD grown 2D transition metal dichalcogenides.
For over two decades, Pd has been the primary hydrogenation metal studied for reductive catalytic water treatment applications. Herein, we report that alternative platinum group metals (Rh, Ru, Pt and Ir) can exhibit substantially higher activity, wider substrate selectivity and variable pH dependence in comparison to Pd. Cross comparison of multiple metals and oxyanion substrates provides new mechanistic insights into the heterogeneous reactions. Activity differences and pH effects mainly originate from the chemical nature of individual metals. Considering the advantages in performance and cost, results support renewed investigation of alternative hydrogenation metals to advance catalytic technologies for water purification and other environmental applications.
Multilevel three-dimensional nanostructures are essential in many integrated nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications. With the continued shrinking of critical device dimensions, extremely precise nanoscale overlay is required between multiple individual levels of these integrated devices. Multilevel nanoimprint lithography has been proposed in the literature as a potential solution to this overlay problem. In this context, self-aligned (perfectly aligned) multilevel templates (SAMT) for multilevel nanoimprint lithdgraphy are proposed in this article. By combining nanolithography, atomic layer deposition, and highly selective reactive ion etch, SAMTs can enable the fabrication of sophisticated integrated devices. Four specific self-aligned multilevel fabrication techniques have been demonstrated that result in symmetric multilevel structures, bilaterally symmetric multilevel structures, tubular structures, and asymmetric multilevel structures, all in the sub-100 nm scale. When used in conjunction with a nanoimprint lithography process, the SAMTs can enable high-throughput patterning of various nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices using a single patterning step with perfect alignment and overlay. SAMTs further enable large area patterning, such as wafer-scale patterning and roll-to-roll patterning on flexible substrates, without compromising perfect overlay. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.