C. E. Tinney, Canchero, A., Rojo, R., Mack, G., Murray, N. E., and Ruf, J. H., “The Sound-field Produced by Clustered Rockets During Startup,” Whither Turbulence and Dig Data for the 21st Century. Symposium held at the Institute dEtudes Scientifques de Cargese, Corsica, France, April 20-24, (Springer Hardbound Volume, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-41217-7), 2015.Abstract
The vibroacoustic loads produced by a cluster of two large area-ratio thrust optimized parabolic contour nozzles are studied over a range of pressure ratios encompassing free-shock separated flow, restricted shock separated flow and the end-effects-regime. The rocket plume is visualized using a retroreflective shadowgraphy system while an experimentally validated RANS model provides insight into the internal flow and shock structure patterns. Pressure loads that form on the base of the vehicle (behind the nozzles) are then measured using a eighth-inch microphone, as most of these loads are caused by high intensity sound waves produced by the rocket nozzle flow. The objective of the study is to provide a direct link between the sources of most intense vibro-acoustic loads that form during the ignition of high area ratio rocket nozzle clusters.
The spatial evolution of acoustic waveforms produced by a Mach 3 jet are investigated using both 1/4 inch and 1/8 inch pressure field microphones located along rays emanating from the post potential core where the peak sound emission is found to occur. The measurements are acquired in a fully anechoic chamber where ground, or other large surface reflections are minimal. The calculation of the OASPL along an arc located at 95 jet diameters using 120 planar grid measurements are shown to collapse remarkably well when the arc array is centered on the post potential core region. Various statistical metrics, including the quadrature spectral density, number of zero crossings, the skewness of the pressure time derivative and the integral of the negative part of the quadrature spectral density, are exercised along the peak emission path. These metrics are shown to undergo rapid changes within 2 meters from the source regions of this laboratory scale jet. The sensitivity of these findings to both transducer size and humidity effects are discussed. A visual extrapolation of these nonlinear metrics toward the jet shear layer suggests that these waveforms are initially skewed at the source. An experimentally validated wave packet model is used to confirm the location where the pressure decay law transition from cylindrical to spherical. It is then used to estimate the source intensity which is required to predict the effective Gol’dberg number.
T. M. Truskett, Johnston, K. P., Maynard, J. A., Borwankar, A. U., Murthy, A. K., Stover, R. J., Wilson, B. K., Dinin, A. K., Laber, J. R., and Gourisankar, S., “Assembling nanoclusters in water for therapy or imaging,” ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 247. AMER CHEMICAL SOC 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA, 2014.
Discrepancies between linear predictions and direct measurements of the far-field sound produced by high speed jet flows are typically ascribed to nonlinear distortion. Here we employ an effective Gol’dberg number to investigate the likelihood of nonlinear distortion in the noise fields of supersonic jets. This simplified approach relies on an isolated view of a ray tube along the Mach wave angle. It is known that the acoustic pressure obeys by cylindrical spreading in close vicinity to the jet before advancing to a spherical decay in the far-field. Therefore, a ‘piecewise-spreading regime’ model is employed in order to compute effective Gol’dberg numbers for these jet flows. Our first-principal approach suggests that cumulative nonlinear distortion can only be present within 20 jet exit diameters along the Mach wave angle when laboratory-scale jets are being considered. Effective Gol’dberg numbers for full-scale jet noise scenarios reveal that a high-degree of cumulative distortion can likewise be present in the spherical decay regime. Hence, full-scale jet noise fields are more affected by cumulative distortion.
Low-dimensional characteristics of a helical vortex filament from a reduced-scale rotor are investigated using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Measurements are captured by way of particle image velocimetry. Experiments are performed on a 1.0 m diameter, single-bladed rotor in hover. The rotor is operated at 1500 RPM, which corresponds to a blade tip chord Reynolds number of 218,000 and a tip Mach number of 0.23. The blade is set to a collective pitch angle of 7.3◦, which resulted in a blade loading (CT /s) of 0.066. Classical and snapshot techniques of POD are applied to a helical vortex filament, both of which revealed similar characteristics of the dominant modes. Two different techniques (G1 and geometric center methods) of wander correction are applied to test the sensitivity of the low-dimensional characteristics using POD. Using the G1 method, POD revealed that an elliptic instability dominated the energy spectrum of the velocity fluctuations within the tip vortex. However, at early vortex ages an axisymmetric mode, which is found to perform vortex roll-up, is found to be equally dominant. Further, the spatial structures of the most energetic modes derived from POD are found to be sensitive to the choice of the centering technique used.