CO2/water foams are of interest for mobility control in CO2 EOR and as energized fracture fluids, or hybrid processes that combine aspects of both processes. In fracturing applications, it would be desirable to lower the water level as much as possible to minimize the production of wastewater and formation damage. It is challenging to stabilize ultra dry foams with extremely high internal phase gas fraction given the high capillary pressure and the rapid drainage rate of the lamellae between the gas bubbles. However, we demonstrate that these ultra dry CO2-in-water foams may be stabilized with surfactants that form viscoelastic wormlike micelles in the aqueous phase. These wormlike micelles are formed by tuning the surfactant packing parameter with electrolytes or a second oppositely-charged surfactant to stabilize ultradry CO2-in-water foams with foam qualities as high as 0.98 and apparent viscosities more than 100 cP up to 90 °C. Applicability of these foams for improved oil recovery is evaluated by running multiphase flow injection simulations in a case-study oil reservoir.
We present biodegradable gold nanoparticles with plasmon resonances in the NIR region that can provide a crucial link between the enormous potential of metal nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy and translation into clinical practice.