Wrought magnesium alloys, such as AZ31 sheet, are of considerable interest for light-weighting of vehicle structural components. The poor room-temperature ductility of AZ31 sheet has been a hindrance to forming the complex part shapes necessary for practical applications. However, the outstanding formability of AZ31 sheet at elevated temperature provides an opportunity to overcome that problem. Complex demonstration components have already been produced at 450°C using gas-pressure forming. Accurate simulations of such hot, gas-pressure forming will be required for the design and optimization exercises necessary if this technology is to be implemented commercially. We report on experiments and simulations used to construct the accurate material constitutive models necessary for finite-element-method simulations. In particular, the effects of strain and stress state on plastic deformation of AZ31 sheet at 450°C are considered in material constitutive model development. Material models are validated against data from simple forming experiments.
One of the critical factors affecting the strength of steel columns at elevated temperatures is the influence of material creep. Under fire conditions, steel columns can exhibit creep buckling, a phenomenon in which the critical buckling load for a column depends not only on slenderness and temperature, but also on the duration of applied load. The phenomenon of time-dependent buckling can have a significant impact on the safety of steel columns subjected to fire. This phenomenon has received relatively little research attention, and is not currently explicitly considered in code-based design formulas for columns at elevated temperatures, such as those in the Eurocode 3 or those in the AISC Specification. This paper presents some results of on-going research, which aims at developing analytical, computational and experimental predictions of the phenomenon of creep buckling in steel columns subjected to fire. Analytical solutions using the concept of time-dependent tangent modulus are developed to model time-dependent buckling behavior of steel columns at elevated temperatures. Results from computational creep buckling studies using Abaqus are also presented, and compared with analytical predictions. Material creep data on ASTM A992 steel is also presented in the paper and compared to existing creep models for structural steel at high temperatures. Both analytical and computational methods utilize material creep models for structural steel developed by Harmathy, by Fields and Fields, and by the authors. Predictions from this study are also compared against those from Eurocode 3 and the AISC Specification. Results of this work show that neglecting creep effects can lead to erroneous and potentially unsafe predictions of the strength of steel columns subjected to fire.
One of the critical factors affecting the strength of steel columns at elevated temperatures is the influence of material creep. Under fire conditions, steel columns can exhibit creep buckling, a phenomenon in which the critical buckling load for a column depends not only on slenderness and temperature, but also on the duration of applied load. Although material creep and consequently the phenomenon of creep buckling can significantly impact the safety of steel columns subjected to fire, they have received relatively little research attention, and are not currently explicitly considered in code-based design formula for columns at elevated temperatures, such as those in the Eurocode 3 or in the AISC Specification. This paper will propose a preliminary methodology to study the phenomenon of creep buckling in steel columns subjected to fire. Preliminary analytical solutions are presented, and compared with computational predictions for creep buckling. The analytical and computational results clearly indicate that accurate knowledge of material creep is essential in studying creep buckling phenomenon at elevated temperatures. In addition, the results show that neglecting creep effects can lead to erroneous and potentially unsafe predictions of the strength of steel columns subjected to fire.
In this experimental investigation, the tensile creep behavior of commercial-purity molybdenum sheet at temperatures between 1300°C and 1700°C is critically evaluated, based upon experimental creep testing and microstructural characterizations. The high-temperature properties of molybdenum are of interest because there are many applications in which molybdenum and molybdenum alloys are used at elevated temperatures. Understanding of the creep mechanisms and the constitutive relations between stress and strain at elevated temperatures is needed in order to determine if molybdenum is an appropriate choice for a given high-temperature design application and to accurately predict its creep life. The creep behavior of two commercially-available grades of molybdenum was determined using short-term creep tests (1/2 to 14 hours) at slow to moderate true-strain rates of 10⁻⁶ to 10⁻⁴ s⁻¹ and temperatures between 1300°C and 1700°C. High-temperature, uniaxial tensile testing was used to produce data defining the relationship between tensile creep strain-rate and steady-state flow stress at four temperatures: 1340°C, 1440°C, 1540°C, 1640°C. Microstructural changes that occurred during creep testing were evaluated and compared to changes resulting from elevated temperature exposure alone. Mechanisms for dynamic abnormal grain growth that occurred during creep testing and the causes of the microstructural changes that occurred as a function of temperature are discussed.